MONTSERRAT VOLCANO ERUPTIONS 1995-1998
1. Describe the location of Montserrat (2 marks)
The location of Montserrat can be described as mountainous and filled with pine trees, it is located in Caribbean and it’s other name is called “the emerald island of the Caribbean’ due to the reason it is covered in lush emerald green plant life
2. Explain why Montserrat is a volcanic island (3 marks)
Montserrat is a volcanic island due to the fact that a volcano, the Soufriere Hills formed in the destructive boundaries between the North American and Caribbean plate.
3. List the Primary and Secondary hazards of the Soufriere Hills volcano (6 marks)
Lava Flow, Ash Cloud, Tephra
4. Which part of the island was evacuated first, and when did this take place ? (2 marks)
The south part of the island, specifically the river valleys were evacuated in August 1995
5. What is a pyroclastic flow ? Describe how this hazard has affected the people of Montserrat (4 marks)
A pyroclastic flow is a huge rapidly moving cloud of superheated rock, gases and ash, the boulders that follow can flatten trees and other objects. The pyroclastic flow affected the people of Montserrat because it scorched the vegetation located on the island. Also, it killed 19 people
6. How is the hazard of the volcanic activity 'managed' ? (4 marks)
The hazards of the volcanic activity were managed by using a seismograph to calculate the movement of the earth, Also, A satellite with GPS were used to track ground movement.
Plus, the PH value of rainwater was collected to see how much magmatic gases were found in the water, as an increase of it may indicate a upcoming eruption. Lastly, geologists often flew to the most dangerous parts of the volcano to check flow deposits, measure cracks and observe the dome to see if swelling occurs, as all these factors may lead to a volcanic eruption
7. How is risk calculated ? (2 marks)
Risk is calculated by the formula people, property x risk x hazard
8. Why is the fact that the south of the island has been most badly hit a particular problem for the people of Montserrat ? (4 marks)
Due to the fact that many of the facilities and the infrastructure are located on the south side of the island people had to cope with homelessness, joblessness, and shortages of land to rebuild.
Also, quite a lot of vegetation were planted in the south, when the volcano destroyed it all, it caused starvation, lack of resources and since the lava had hardened over the soil and the lahar had washed away mots of the soil’s humus layer, it was difficult for the people to start replanting
9. What role did the British have to play in the evacuation of the island ? (3 marks)
The British helped to pay compensation to the people who were affected by the Montserrat eruption, a total of 2,400 euros were offered to each adult as compensation for destroyed property and other objects.