Wednesday, May 16, 2012

Tackling Coastal Erosion Question (Retry)

Look in Geo Book-Tackling Coastal Erosion Question (Retry)

Success Criteria About Tropical Rainforests(17/5/12)

1. To understand the characteristics of a tropical rainforest and understand what factors effect it
2. To be able to understand the key elements required for the CA

Food Chain Food Webs Notes and Exercise

Look in Geo File- Living World-Food Chain Food Webs Notes and Exercise

Sunday, May 6, 2012

Living World Topic Summary and Overview

See geo book (2)
-Living World Topic Summary
-Living World Overview

Tackling Coastal Erosion Questions (1)

SEE GEO BOOK (2)-Tackling Coastal Erosion Questions (1)

Holderness Case Study (Coastal Management)

Location Map
Description: Macintosh HD:Users:wi.kiat:Desktop:Screen shot 2012-05-07 at 12.17.40 PM.png
Mappleton is located on the Holderness Coast in East Yorkshire in the United Kingdom

What’s the problem?
L The coast are is made up of mainly cliffs (20-30 m)
L The coastline is being eroded at a very fast rate (1m/ yr) 4 km of land has been lost since Roman times
L Easington Gas Station (part of the North South Gas Terminal) is situation at the top of a cliff

What are the factors that make Mappleton vulnerable to erosion?
·      Cliffs are made of soft boulder clay
·      The coast of Holderness is exposed, the waves can have a very long fetch
·      The waves are mainly destructive
·      The beaches are very narrow, since most of the material eroded is washed out to sea, this does very little to protect the coastline
·      Sea level rise threatens the coastline further
Description: Holderness_Coast
What are the impacts?

- People may have to move or retreat if the coastline continues being eroded
- Possible loss of life, not likely humans but maybe animals
-Depression and anxiety may happen as people’s home and farmland are threatened

-Compensation has to be paid to people who have to move or relocate
-Money has to be paid to repair and protect the coastline
- Country may experience losses 

-Vegetation and plant life destroyed
-Natural landscape destroyed
-Loss of habitat for flora and fauna

How it is managed?

Hard Engineering
·       In 1991, the decision was taken to protect Mappleton. A coastal management scheme costing 2 million was introduced involving two types of hard engineering
·       – Blocks of granite were imported from Norway for sea defences at the bottom of the cliff and for the two rock groynes.
·       2 rock groynes were constructed in 1991 to encourage the build up of beach in front of Mappleton by trapping longshore drift. This meant that that waves would break on the beach rather than attacking the cliffs. The rock groynes have stopped beach material being moved south from Mappleton along the coast. (However, this has increased erosion south of Mappleton).
·       There is also placement of rock armour along the base of the cliff and the construction of sea walls and revetments as wave-resistant structures at the base of the cliffs.
·       Artificial off-shore breakwaters like tyres and concrete blocks were built, forcing waves to break off-shore.

Range of stakeholders in Mappleton
Holderness Council : This is a small authority with low total annual budget. Spending a large amount of money to protect a village is hard to justify. The decision for protecting Mappleton is yet to be decided.
Ministry of Agriculture : Moving towards the policy of managed retreat. Although towns, villages and roads would be protected, farmlands and even isolated houses would be regarded as dispensable and allowed to disappear. There are food surpluses in the Europe so they are no longer need every bit of farmland.
Farmers : Do not want their land to be destroyed. They ask for even coastal protection so that farmers living in Southern Mappleton would not be at greater risk from the sea.

What my opinion is…

I suppose that the council should use a mixture of hard and soft engineering depending on the location if for example farmland and town areas hard engineering would be good, while areas with tourist district, soft engineering would be recommended

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Coastal Stakeholders (Relationship between coastal management and people)

Soft Engineering (Pros and Cons)

Soft Engineering

Soft engineering uses natural systems such as mangrove and dunes to protect the coastal area. They do this by manipulating and maintaining these natural structures instead of changing their fundamental structures

Some methods include:

-Beach Nourishment
It is done by importing sand and shingle to an area affected by longshore drift.

J Natural defense against erosion and coastal flooding
J Attracts tourists

L Requires regular maintenance as material is constantly swept away from the beach

-Managed Retreat
Erosion is allowed to occur, this  is done to areas of low value

J Encourage the development of natural defense landforms such as beaches and salt marshes
J Low cost

L People may have to be compensated for loss of  from buildings houses and farmland
J Low Costs

J Does not change the landscape of the surrounding area

J Retains the original form of a structure of the landform

J Little reduction of a landform’s usefulness level

J Less impact on the surrounding environment

J Usually long term methods and are sustainable

L Requires regular maintenance

L The defense levels of the landforms may shift over time

L Less likely to be effective in harsh storm conditions

Coastal Management Techniques

Coastal Management Strategies

Hard Engineering
The coastline is totally protected, this method of engineering usually use man made structures.
Methods include rock armor, groynes , sea walls or flood barriers
Soft Engineering
Natural defenses are used to protect the coastline, this method usually uses natural methods of defense.
Methods include beach nourishment and marsh creation
Managed Retreat
Do nothing and allow the coastline to change by itself
Methods include stopping repairs on sea defenses or abandoning the coastline to nature

Sea Level Rise Case Study: Tuvalu

Consequences of rising sea levels
Case Study: Tuvalu
Describe the location:

It is located in in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Australia and Hawaii. It’s some of it’s nearby neighbors are Fiji and Samoa. They are formally known as Ellice Island

Location map + sea level rise

Explain why it is vulnerable to sea level rise…

The island is only 5m in height which makes it extremely vulnerable to rising sea levels, experts predict that Tuvalu will disappear by 2050.

·      The highest wave called King Tide is 3m high
·      Tuvalu is located in a area where the sea levels are particularly high
·      Most of the island are made of coral reefs, since they are porous, water can seep into inland areas
·      Most of Tuvalu’s infrastructure such as the airport is located by the coast, so it poses an extreme risk
·      They have very little fresh groundwater and have to rely on rainwater for fresh water

Predicted IMPACTS (SEEP) Evidence please..

-Evacuation of people to the main island of Funafuti, which now host half of Tuvalu’s population.
-Overcrowding due to the huge inter migration to the main island.
- People are forced to leave islands such as Tipuku Salvilivili has already been abandoned due to the rapidly rising sea levels swallowing the island
-The island main source of food, Pulaka is being killed by the intrusion of saltwater, this leads to diminish in food supply.
-Travelling on the island becomes a problem as it is constantly flooded

-Coconut plantations are being killed off, this is concerning as dried coconut meat plays a large part in Tuvalu’s economy
-Hotels and buildings are constantly being flooded, this hampers trade, business and tourism
- Access to the island becomes limited due to the seawater covering the runway, this hampers materials from being imported into Tuvalu

-Groundwater will become undrinkable as the sea water heads inland
-Crops cannot be planted as the seawater intrudes into the plantations
-The world would be alerted to global warming by using the sinking of Tuvalu as an example

-The G3 might be held responsible for not rectifying the Kyoto protocol

What is being done to prevent OR manage the threat?

-Houses and buildings are being improved to combat flooding such as implementing ten foot stilts and raise the house to prevent it from being damaged by floods.
-The citizens are Tuvalu are being evacuation to either the mainland or to nearby countries such as New Zealand
In general terms, the government is planning to evacuate the entire population of Tuvalu before in sinks into the ocean, the current outlook for Tuvalu is looking bleak

Rising Sea Levels Notes and Exercises

The Rising Sea Levels Notes

1. What are the differences between prediction and prevention?

Prediction: To foresee a possible event that might occur in the near or distant future
Prevention: To stop a certain event that from happening or arising

2. What does global warming have to do with rising sea levels?
With the temperatures of the world rising, the glacial in the polar caps start melting causing more ice to melt into water, thus resulting the sea levels to rise.

Several factors of sea levels rising:

-Glacial Melting
-Ice from the polar caps melting
-Thermal Expansion (When water heats up, it expands and sea levels rise)

Causes of sea level rising:

Sea Level : (Rise, Fall)
Warm Climate
Due to glacial caps melting causing the glacial to melt into water, causing more water to be deposited into the ocean
Cool Climate
As the water in the ocean start freezing in glacial caps, the water in the ocean starts decreasing.

There are two types of changes in sea levels

Eustatic Change: There are global changes were the global sea level rises or falls, they either rise during the warm climate and fall during the cooler climate.

Isostatic Change: These are global changes of the land mass rising or falling , this is commonly due to ice on land melting, causing the land to rebound due to the pressure rising or falling

UGG Textbook Practice Exercises

Pg 125

a.     In the United Kingdom, the majority of areas at risk of coastal flooding and erosion is located on the east of the United Kingdom, most of it is located in King’s Lynn and while London is also prone to coastal flooding. Also, located on the east of London, Bristol also has areas which are prone to lowland flooding. Also on the west of the United Kingdom, Liverpool has many areas which are prone to flooding. Lastly, Carlisle also has lowland areas which at risk from coastal flooding
b.     These areas are more prone to erosion due the fact that longshore drift is taking materials away, since these areas face the rough Atlantic ocean, there are more destructive waves thus causing more material to be eroded and taken away.